* Cracking (cracking): In oil refining cracking processes break down the molecules of heavier hydrocarbons (high boiling point) in more light as gasoline and diesel products. These processes include catalytic cracking, hydrocracking and thermal cracking. * Alkylation: (Molecules and chemical compounds) olefins such as propylene and butylene are produced by the catalytic and thermal cracking. Alkylation refers to the chemical union of these light molecules with Isobutane to form larger molecules in a branched chain (isoparaffins) forming to produce a high octane gasoline. * Isomerization: Isomerization refers to the chemical reorganization of linear chain (paraffin) hydrocarbons, by containing ramifications attached to the main chain (isoparaffins). This process is achieved through normal butane with a little hydrogen and chlorine mixture and let it react in the presence of a catalyst to form plus a small amount of normal butane, isobutane and some lighter gases.
The products are separated in a fractionator. The lighter gases are used as fuel refinery and butane recycled as food. * Polymerisation: Low pressure and temperature, over an acid catalyst, the light of unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules react and combine together to form larger hydrocarbon molecules. This process with oil supplies can be used to react butenos (olefins with four carbon atoms molecules) with iso-butane (branched molecules of paraffin, or isoparaffins, containing four carbon atoms) to obtain a high octane gasoline. * Hidrotratamientos: the Hydrotreating is a way to eliminate many of the pollutants of many intermediates or end obtained from the petroleum refining process. In the hydrotreating process, the raw material that enters is mixed with hydrogen and heats up to 300 380oC. The oil combined with hydrogen then enters a reactor loaded with a catalyst which promotes several reactions.